The earlier propaganda against Cleopatra is described as \"rooted in the hostile Roman literary tradition\". Similar literary tactics, including the suggestive mingling of historical fact and gossip in the officially approved annals, is what has helped prolong the scandalous reputation of Messalina as well.
To call a woman \"a Messalina\" indicates a devious and sexually voracious personality. The historical figure and her fate were often used in the arts to make a moral point, but there was often as well a prurient fascination with her sexually-liberated behaviour. In modern times, that has led to exaggerated works which have been described as romps.
Juvenal's account of her nights spent in the brothel is commonly portrayed. Gustave Moreau painted her leading another man onto the bed while an exhausted prostitute sleeps in the background, while in Paul Rouffio's painting of 1875 she reclines bare-breasted as a slave offers grapes. The Dane Peder Severin Krøyer depicted her standing, her full body apparent under the thin material of her dress. The ranks of her customers are just visible behind the curtain against which she stands (see above). Two drawings by Aubrey Beardsley were produced for a private printing of Juvenal's satires (1897). The one titled Messalina and her companion showed her on the way to the brothel, while a rejected drawing is usually titled Messalina returning from the bath. About that period, too, Roman resident Pavel Svedomsky reimagined the historical scene. There the disguised seductress is at work in a light-suffused alley, enticing a passer-by into the brothel from which a maid looks out anxiously.
As well as plays, the story of Messalina was adapted to ballet and opera. The 1878 ballet by Luigi Danesi (1832-1908) to music by Giuseppe Giaquinto (d. 1881) was an Italian success with several productions. On its arrival in France in 1884 it was made a fantastical spectacle at the Éden-Théâtre, with elephants, horses, massive crowd scenes and circus games in which rows of bare-legged female gladiators preceded the fighters. Isidore de Lara's opera Messaline, based on a 4-act verse tragedy by Armand Silvestre and Eugène Morand, centred upon the love of the empress for a poet and then his gladiator brother. It opened in Monte Carlo in 1899 and went on to Covent Garden. The ailing Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec saw the Bordeaux production and was inspired to paint six scenes from it, including Messalina descending a staircase, seated while a bearded character in a dark tunic stands to one side, or the same character stands and kneels before her,[better source needed] as well as resting extras. Later there was also an Italian production of the opera in translation.
In 19th century France, the story of Messalina was subject to literary transformation. It underlaid La femme de Claude (Claudius' wife, 1873), the novel by Alexandre Dumas fils, where the hero is Claude Ruper, an embodiment of the French patriotic conscience after the country's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War. In contrast, his wife Césarine (the female Caesar) is a creature totally corrupt at all levels, who sells her husband's work to the enemy and is eventually shot by him. Alfred Jarry's 'pataphysical' novel Messaline of 1901 (titled The Garden of Priapus in Louis Colman's English translation), though lightly based on the historical account, is chiefly the product of the author's fanciful and extravagant imagination and has been compared with the treatment of Classical themes by Art Nouveau artists.
Written by Gordon Rennie, with art by Paul Davidson and Patrick Goddard, this is swords and sorcery with a historical twist, a violent and bloody descent through the ages with the undying assassin and his compatriot Felix embarking on a mission that may shake the foundations of hell itself!
The first season of any campaign is winter and a chance for Biccus Diccus to visit the slave markets to buy new fighters. In later seasons he could trade gladiators or buy gladiators from other players but as this is the start of the campaign, no one has any to trade just yet.
Velites are light gladiators armed with javelins and a short sword. They also carry a shield giving them some protection. Often used in pairs against more heavily armoured gladiators. In my rules the javelins can be thrown or retained to attack from a distance.
Of course, there are still many more to do. The Retiarius, what gladiator game would not be complete without this iconic fighter with its trident and net. The Diamachaerius with its twin swords. Then of course there are the Gladiatrix, female fighters although rare must be featured (especially when you have two daughters). Then animals, Lions and Bears were favourites as were Giraffes, Ostrich, and Elephants, although I will probably leave those out.
The Secutor is also designed to fight the Retiarius and had a smooth helmet so that the Retarius net would not entangle it and small eye holes with restricted view. In my game this gladiator is slow to react but has good armour.
The Murmillo was often paired against the Hoplomachus or Thracian. This is probably what most people imagine when they picture Gladiators. Armed with the Roman gladius sword and scutum large shield. This is a medium weight gladiator in my rules with average armour and speed.
I have kept the actual fighting area reasonably small, just 8 hexes at its longest point. I will add some scenery elements to separate hexes so that they can be moved around and add extra strategic elements. The scenery should come in handy when fighting against Sagittarius (Bow armed) gladiators. 153554b96e