A puckered embouchure, used by most players, and sometimes used by jazz players for extremely high "screamer" notes. Maggio claimed that the pucker embouchure gives more endurance than some systems. Carlton MacBeth is the main proponent of the pucker embouchure. The Maggio system was established because Louis Maggio had sustained an injury which prevented him from playing. In this system the player cushions the lips by extending them or puckering (like a monkey). This puckering enables the players to overcome physical malformations. It also lets the player play for an extended time in the upper register. The pucker can make it easy to use to open an aperture. Much very soft practice can help overcome this. Claude Gordon was a student of Louis Maggio and Herbert L. Clarke and systematized the concepts of these teachers. Claude Gordon made use of pedal tones for embouchure development as did Maggio and Herbert L. Clarke. All three stressed that the mouthpiece should be placed higher on the top lip for a more free vibration of the lips.
This embouchure method, advocated by a minority of brass pedagogues such as Jerome Callet, has not yet been sufficiently researched to support the claims that this system is the most effective approach for all brass performers.
As you play your horn you will have a natural tendency to eitherblow the air stream up towards your nose, or down towards your chin.This tendency is based on your own physical traits, like toothformation. Don't try to change the direction of your air stream, itnever works well. You have to learn to use what nature has given you.Upstream players usually have a tendency to smile or thin out theirlips. You must guard against this, as it will hinder your endurance andtone quality. The jaw should be thrust out and horn pivot up to ascendin 85% to 90% of upstream players. A lot of upstream players tend tobunch up their lips and create a roll under their lower lip. This isnatural in an upstream player. Upstream players usually have a brightertone than downstream players and their range is easier to produce, butnot higher. An upstream player needs to look at mouthpiece shapes andlarger bells to darken his sound. Downstream players tend to rely on mouthpiece pressure to play high.This is exactly the opposite of what they need to do. This pressure willcause lip strain and require more and more air. It could also cause aninjury. Downstream players should pivot with the bell down whileascending. Not all will. This downward pivot will help you to back thepressure off of the top lip. Backing off the pressure will enable you tosoar. You must resist the tendency to over pucker. Downstream playersusually have a darker sound and need to look at double cups, or shallowmouthpieces for range. The Costello-Stevens Embouchure is used by a lot of high noteartists. It was first used in the 20's and disappeared for about 40years. It uses a slight rolling in of both lips and touching evenly allthe way across. It also uses 50% top lip and 50% lower lip in themouthpiece. The teeth will be ½ inch apart and the jaw thrust forwardso that the teeth are even. This will give you a level, or slightlyelevated horn angle. There is little mouthpiece pressure. To practicethis hold your horn by laying it on its side in the palm of your hand.Do not grab it. Place your lips on the mouthpiece and play. At first youwill get nothing, but you should get so you can at least play a high Cwith this exercise. There are some teachers who tell their students tolock their elbows with the mouthpiece 1 to 2 inches away from theirmouth and then make the head chase the mouthpiece. Doing this it is notpossible to use much pressure. You must use lateral lip compression toplay your upper register. Relax the chops and back off the pressure.Make the air do all the work. Not only can it, but you will add anoctave to your range. As your top lip pushes down and you bottom lippushes up you may get a roll of skin under your lower lip. In thissystem it is normal. This embouchure uses a tongue arch and a pivot.With this embouchure different people pivot in different directions. Itis based on how far forward you thrust your chin and which way your airstream goes. Try both ways. It's a lot easier to tell if the pivot goingdown is right or not. Play a low G, pivot the bell up and then down. Oneway will sound free and clear and the other will be really bad. Points to remember: 1. Good posture. Chest, arms and head up. 2. Relax jaw and open throat. 3. Teeth 1/2 inch apart. Jaw forward. 4. Pull the mouth corners in toward your lips. 5. Roll both lips in slightly. 6. Let the lips touch and expose to air. Say "M". 7. Buzzing firmness before placing mouthpiece. 8. Place mouthpiecegently on lips. 9. Little mouthpiece pressure. 10. Breathe and blow. Don't hold it in. 11. Pivot to keep mouthpiece lined up with air stream. 12. Lip compression will give you upper register. Lip against lip. 13. Relax the chops. Back off the pressure and make the air work. 14. Always set chops, place mouthpiece, blow. Problems Nine times out of ten if your upper register does not speak it isbecause your lips are too tense. Relax and make the air work for you. Ifyour sound is thin and weak you are using too much pressure. To get abrighter sound roll your lips in, or direct the air stream behind yourupper teeth. To get a darker sound, roll your lips out, direct the air stream down,or make a more oval lip aperture by drawing the corners in slightly. Tooflat a lip aperture will produce a bright, hard sound. You will not beable to play softly and will have air in your tone. No matter whatembouchure you play, make the air do the work, relax your chops, backoff the pressure and use the right equipment for the job. If you need adark sound, you need a deep cup and wide bell flare. Remember, as a player you will need to play more low A's and G's inpublic than high A's or G's. Practice your low register and make itsound good. The first reference to the jaw forward embouchure, now knownas the Stevens System, was in a book by Cesare Bendinelli called "TheEntire Art of Trumpet Playing" and written in 1614. The next one was in"The Trumpeters' and Kettledrummers" Art" by J. E. Altenburg and writtenin 1795. Out of 42 books about embouchures, only one from the 1920's,taught the smile system. One taught the Maggio Pucker System, threetaught to overlap the lips at all times, and one liked both theoverlapped lip and smiling. Thirty-six books taught the Stevens System,even if not by name. Dr. Stevens' mistake was to demonstrate that you do notneed mouthpiece pressure to play high. I read the same demonstration inRafael Mendez's book. Mendez was not criticized because he was a "legit"player, and Stevens was criticized because he was a high note player. A final note on embouchure. Remember, the key points are: teethapart, head up, throat open, say the letter M to set the chops, breatheand blow. A few people have problems going from low to high. They tendto reset on a breath. This is caused by placing the mouthpiece on flabbylips and not ready to play lips. Jacoby always had his students set fora G on top of the staff before placing the mouthpiece. From there youcan relax for the two lower octaves, or firm up for the top octave. Thistechnique also eliminates most of the lip rolling, both in and out. H.L. Clarke and Rafael Mendez shared Jacoby's view. 'Pops' A collection of some past posts & information about my book.
I think you are a little off on the Stevens chops.Headvocated more bottom than top lip.(2/3 1/3).From his book: Mouthpiece placement and weight distributionIn the small mouthpiece brass instrument family (trumpet, cornet,French horn, etc.), the placement should be a little more than half (about60 - 65%) below a gently closed lip aperture. This permits the bottom lipfacing to extend, left to right, beyond the top lip vibrating area andinsures a complete seal of facing and reed. In the larger mouthpiece family,(trombone, tube, etc.), the placement of the mouthpiece should be closerto 50 or 55% on the bottom.And,as regards the teeth opening he has this to say:bringing the jaw forward to an even (parallel) or slightly forwardbite of the lower teeth while maintaining an aperture of approximately1/4th inch.Not 1/2".Actually in his lessons Roy would say never less than 1/8th with 1/4" inch being the optimum.You could always spot his guys walkingaround Manhattan with pencils in their mouths, jaws thrust forward likeso many 1952 Pontiac hood ornaments.It would either work real well fora guy or turn others around big time.Back in the 60's the take was usuallythat Roys students could all play good "G.s" but lacked good middle registersounds and flexibilty and most everybody was down on him and the Costellosystem.It's funny that it seems to be making somewhat of a comeback aswitnessed by members of this Newsgroups interest.Here's the whole book: 2b1af7f3a8